SPCA New Zealand
Advice & welfare

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What health issues do pugs and other short nosed dog breeds have?

I think that Pugs are really cute and am thinking of getting one. Do they have any health issues that I need to know about?

Pugs are lovely little dogs but unfortunately they are one of the many pedigree breeds of dog that have exaggerated physical features which cause them considerable health and welfare issues. In particular, most Pugs (and other short nosed or ‘brachycephalic’ breeds such as Boston Terriers and British Bulldogs) have serious difficulty breathing. This is because they have been selectively bred over time to have a drastically shortened muzzle. However, the soft tissue inside the head, such as the soft palate, has not shortened and this blocks the dog’s airways. In addition, brachycephalic breeds often have nostrils and windpipes that are not wide enough and this makes it even more difficult for them to breathe.

The malformations that brachycephalic dogs suffer from have been actively selected for to exaggerate the dogs’ physical appearance and lead to serious consequences.

Brachcephalic dogs may pass out or collapse due to a lack of oxygen or they may overheat, even fatally. These problems are particularly likely to occur when the dog exercises or gets excited. Many of these dogs cannot sleep properly because they find breathing so difficult and may even have to sleep sitting or standing up.

These problems are so widespread and serious that they have been formally recognised and named as Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome. Many of the affected dogs need major surgery to try to correct the physical malformations, relieve their serious symptoms and improve their quality of life. In addition to these serious breathing problems, many brachycephalic dogs like Pugs also have eye problems due to their protruding eyes, and also have such problems giving birth that they have to have caesarean sections to deliver their puppies. Anyone who loves dogs, owners, breeders and veterinarians need to work together to address and prevent these problems. Dogs deserve better.

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